As transistors shrink, not all device parameters scale at the same rate—and therein lies a potentially huge problem.In recent years, manufacturers have been able to reduce equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) more quickly than operating voltage. As a result, the electric field present in the channel and gate dielectric has been increasing. Moreover, EOT reduction is achieved in part by reducing the thickness of the SiO2 portion of the SiO2/high-k dielectric stack comprising the gate dielectric. With a thinner interfacial oxide, tunneling into the bulk high-k oxide increases even at constant field. Increasing power density means higher operating temperatures, too, further increasing device stress.Time-dependent dielectric breakdown, hot carrier injection, and bias temperature instability (BTI) are all field-dependent, and so all three are becoming more worrisome. Of the three, BTI increases most sharply with electric field. BTI is a shift in threshold voltage with applied … [Read more...] about The End Of Silicon?
Sprint on Saturday announced that it will sit out the next FCC spectrum auction.Instead of bidding for the low-band spectrum that will be on offer, Sprint -- which is running neck-and-neck with T-Mobile, the self-styled "Un-Carrier" -- will focus on improving its network.It could be the last low-band auction the industry sees for decades, T-Mobile CEO John Legere said this summer.Up for grabs at the next auction are 600-MHz bands -- wireless spectrum coveted for the ability of its deep wavelengths to penetrate the thick undergrowth and subterranean passages of concrete jungles. Sprint has concluded that it has more than enough low-band spectrum to build out what it already owns and that it doesn't need to spend billions on more.The decision to sit this one out won't harm Sprint, said wireless analyst Jeff Kagan."Many people are surprised to learn that Sprint has a very healthy amount of spectrum, so they don't have the same need as other competitors," he told the E-Commerce Times.Every … [Read more...] about Sprint Bets Its Spectrum Will Suffice
Dining beneath the waves is an absurd idea if it involves getting wet and trying to chew your food between hefty gulps of air, but construct a large room with glass walls and a ceiling so you can stay dry and the idea starts to sound pretty darn cool.Several such restaurants have made a splash at luxury resorts in the Maldives in recent years, and now acclaimed architecture and interior design firm Snøhetta is making plans for an underwater restaurant of its own at a spot on Norway‘s most southern point. It’ll be Europe’s first-ever underwater restaurant, though only if you disregard this “scuba” restaurant in Belgium that you have to swim to before you can sit down and peruse the menu.Called Under (a word that when translated into Norwegian means “wonder,” the architect points out), the restaurant will specialize in seafood (what else?) and accommodate up to 100 people.Snøhetta’s stunning design resembles a large concrete box … [Read more...] about Slip into the sea to try Europe’s first underwater restaurant
Lawrence Livermore National Lab scientists and academic collaborators have demonstrated the synthesis of transparent glass through 3D printing, a development that could ultimately lead to altering the design and structure of lasers and other devices that incorporate optics.A team of LLNL researchers, along with scientists from the University of Minnesota and Oklahoma State University, report the creation of 3D printed transparent glass components in the latest issue of Advanced Materials, published online on April 28. In the paper, the researchers describe a 3D printing technique enabling glass structures and composition gradients previously impossible through conventional manufacturing processes.“The Lab is always looking for different ways to create new materials for optical applications,” said LLNL chemical engineer and project lead Rebecca Dylla-Spears. “We’re not going to replace the optical materials made through traditional means, but we’re trying … [Read more...] about Researchers Achieve Breakthrough in 3D-Printed Optics
HPC The coastal GPS data were used to calculate the tsunami source energy and drive the tsunami prediction model. Courtesy of NASA Demonstrates Tsunami Prediction SystemA NASA-led research team has successfully demonstrated for the first time elements of a prototype tsunami prediction system that quickly and accurately assesses large earthquakes and estimates the size of resulting tsunamis.After the magnitude 8.8 Chilean earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010, a NASA-led team of researchers used real-time data from the agency's Global Differential GPS (GDGPS) network to successfully predict the size of the resulting tsunami.The network, managed by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, Calif., combines global and regional real-time data from hundreds of GPS sites and estimates their positions every second. It can detect ground motions as small as a few centimeters."This successful test demonstrates that coastal GPS systems can effectively be used to predict the size … [Read more...] about NASA Demonstrates Tsunami Prediction System
Sprint continued to make progress in its turnaround during Q1, it said Tuesday. However, it apparently wasn't enough to keep the company from slipping to fourth place among major wireless carriers, exchanging places with T-Mobile, which climbed up to third.Among other things, Sprint cut postpaid customer losses in the quarter to 12,000 -- the lowest ever. It had total net additions of 675,000 customers compared with the Q1, 2014, loss of 220,000. It also earned 180 RootScore awards in the first half of 2015, compared with 27 in the same period last year.Predictably, T-Mobile's ebullient CEO John Legere responded by gloating."Love that [Sprint] is talking up a big turnaround -- while posting the 14th straight quarter of postpaid phone loss (total of 4.8 million postpaid)," he tweeted."They're really making moves over there at [Sprint]!" Legere added. "Like the move from 3rd to 4th."Sprint stock prices hit a 52-week low of US$3.10, he also pointed out. "Sprint is keeping and getting … [Read more...] about Sprint Sinks to 4th Place, T-Mobile’s Legere Gloats