Adderall is a prescription medication used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Adderall, a brand name, is a combination of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine, which are central nervous system stimulants. Taking Adderall may help increase the ability to focus, pay attention and control behavior. The drug increases the synaptic concentration of dopamine and norepinephrine by blocking the reabsorption of a neurotransmitter, said Dr. Maria Pino, a toxicologist and course director for pharmacology at Touro College of Osteopathic Medicine in New York. This drug mainly stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, which triggers the body's fight or flight responses, such as dilation of the pupil of the eye, increased blood pressure and heart rate and increased sweating. Identification of Adderall Adderall is available as a tablet and as an extended-release capsule (Adderall XR). It comes in varying doses, depending on the size of the patient and the … [Read more...] about Adderall: Uses, Abuses & Side Effects
Combination pill side effects
Ibuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) available both over-the-counter and, in greater strength, by prescription. It aims to relieve pain in a variety of cases, including fevers, headaches, toothaches, menstrual cramps, joint pain and backaches. It is sometimes prescribed to relieve the symptoms of osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis, such as stiffness, tenderness and swelling, though it cannot cure arthritis. It works by blocking the body’s enzymes that make chemicals that signal pain. "It's an anti-inflammatory drug typically prescribed for the treatment of pain and [it's] also effective for fever," said Dr. Aaron Clark, a family medicine physician at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center in Columbus, Ohio. Ibuprofen is commonly marketed as Advil, Motrin or Midol. Dosage Nonprescription ibuprofen is available in the following forms: tablet, chewable tablet, liquid and drops of concentrated liquid. Adults and children over 12 can … [Read more...] about Ibuprofen: Dosage, Side Effects & Other Facts
A drug that treats a variety of white blood cell cancers typically costs about $148,000 a year, and doctors can customize and quickly adjust doses by adjusting how many small-dose pills of it patients should take each day—generally up to four pills. At least, that was the case until now. Last year, doctors presented results from a small pilot trial hinting that smaller doses could work just as well as the larger dose—dropping patients down from three pills a day to just one. Taking just one pill a day could dramatically reduce costs to around $50,000 a year. And it could lessen unpleasant side-effects, such as diarrhea, muscle and bone pain, and tiredness. But just as doctors were gearing up for more trials on the lower dosages, the makers of the drug revealed plans that torpedoed the doctors’ efforts: they were tripling the price of the drug and changing pill dosages. The drug, ibrutinib (brand name Imbruvica), typically came in 140 mg capsules, of which patients … [Read more...] about Doctors tried to lower $148K cancer drug cost; makers triple price of pill
The placebo effect can be incredibly powerful, performing nearly as well as carefully designed and tested drugs, substituting for actual surgeries and even generating side effects. But it's a tricky thing to apply outside of experiments. After all, not everyone will have a strong placebo response, so it's unethical to use it in place of actual treatments. Now, some researchers in Germany have figured out a way to harness the placebo effect to increase the impact of a normal drug treatment. The procedure involves getting patients to associate a taste with a powerful drug that has problematic side effects. Once the association is made, the patients were given a mix of normal drugs and a placebo, along with the flavor they'd associated with the drug. This experiment enhanced their response to the drug, providing an avenue to potentially reduce its dose and, thus, its side effects. And the whole thing worked despite the fact that the patients knew exactly what was going on. The drug … [Read more...] about Training plus a placebo may make a drug more effective
In 1940s India, Dr. Marthe Voegeli made a potentially world-changing discovery: that exposing the testicles to hot water baths at temperatures of 116 degrees Fahrenheit for 45 minutes every day for three weeks provided six months of reliable contraception. She carried out a series of experiments showing that men could achieve varying lengths of contraceptive effectiveness from these hot baths. Getting men to take part in her research in the 1940s and '50s was no mean feat for a woman of her time, and she only managed to recruit dozens of men to her trials, however. That's far short of the hundreds and thousands who would be required to take part in a meaningful trial nowadays. Despite this, Voegeli's preliminary results were promising. Yet the aims of her research were soon forgotten. Why? The female hormonal contraceptive pill was approved by the FDA in 1960, and interest in her work waned as the quest for non-intrusive, reliable contraception was deemed by many to have been realized. … [Read more...] about More than half a century later, where’s the male pill?