A Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) research team has identified interaction between two elements of the immune system as critical for the transformation of a protective immune response into chronic, cancer-promoting inflammation. In their report published in PNAS, the investigators demonstrate that elevated levels of the immune factor IL-33 and regulatory T cells (Tregs), which suppress the action of tumor-fighting immune cells, set the stage for the development of skin cancer associated with chronic dermatitis and colorectal cancer in patients with colitis. "Our research has revealed a critical immunological axis that initiates the development of cancer-promoting chronic inflammation," says Shawn Demehri, MD, PhD, of the MGH Center for Cancer Immunology and the Cutaneous Biology Research Center, senior author of the report. "This axis is chronic inflammation's 'Achilles heel,' and blocking it promises to prevent cancer development in chronic inflammation, which accounts for almost … [Read more...] about Interaction Between Immune Factors Triggers Cancer-Promoting Chronic Inflammation
Chronic tonsil inflammation
While it is widely shown that possessing the ApoE4 gene is the major genetic risk factor of Alzheimer's disease (AD), not all ApoE4 carriers develop AD. For the first time, researchers at Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) have shown that ApoE4 linked with chronic inflammation dramatically increases the risk for AD. This can be detected by sequential measurements of C-reactive protein, a common clinical test which can be could be done routinely in a clinical setting. "Finding out what mediating factors for ApoE4 increase AD risk is important for developing intervention and prevention of the disease," explained corresponding author Wendy Qiu, MD, associate professor of psychiatry and pharmacology & experimental therapeutics at BUSM. "Since many elders have chronic low-grade inflammation after suffering from common diseases like cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, pneumonia and urinary tract infection, or after having surgeries, rigorously treating chronic systemic … [Read more...] about Link Found Between Chronic Inflammation, Risk for Alzheimer’s Disease
Inflammation is a vital part of the immune system's response to injury and infection. It is the body's way of signaling the immune system to heal and repair damaged tissue, as well as defend itself against foreign invaders, such as viruses and bacteria. Without inflammation as a physiological response, wounds would fester, and infections could become deadly. However, if the inflammatory process goes on for too long or if the inflammatory response occurs in places where it is not needed, it can become problematic. Chronic inflammation has been linked to certain diseases such as heart disease or stroke, and may also lead to autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. But a healthy diet and lifestyle can help keep inflammation under control. Acute inflammation Acute inflammation occurs after a cut on the knee, a sprained ankle or a sore throat. It's a short-term response with localized effects, meaning it works at the precise place where a … [Read more...] about What Is Inflammation?
Tens of thousands of Danes take insulin every day to treat their diabetes. But diabetes is not the only disease on which insulin has an effect, it appears. Chronic bowel inflammation can be treated effectively by injecting insulin into the rectum, it appears from a new study, where researchers have tested the treatment on mice. The study is a collaboration between departments at the University of Copenhagen and Roskilde University. ’Our new treatment with insulin on mice shows great potential against chronic bowel inflammation in humans like Colitis Ulcerosa, which causes a lot of people great discomfort. Existing treatments attack the bowel’s immune system, dampening it; instead our method strengthens the bowel cells’ own defense. It appears to work equally well, and it can probably be used in combination with existing treatments’, says Jørgen Olsen, co-inventor of the treatment and professor at the Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University … [Read more...] about Insulin Shows Great Potential Against Chronic Colitis
Tonsils are small organs in the back of the throat. As part of the lymphatic system, they play an important role in the health of the body. Tonsils were once thought to be a useless part made obsolete by evolution. When bothered by an infection, doctors once prescribed the removal of the tonsils through a tonsillectomy. These small organs are actually quite useful, though. Size and location Technically, there are three sets of tonsils in the body: the pharyngeal tonsils, commonly known as adenoids, the palatine tonsils and the lingual tonsils, which are lymphatic tissue on the surface tissue of the base of the tongue, according to Encyclopedia Britannica. When people refer to tonsils, though, they are usually talking about the palatine tonsils. These tonsils are oval, pea-sized clusters of lymph cells in the pharynx at the opening of either side of the throat. Though they may seem large in children, the size of the tonsils tends to get smaller when a person becomes an … [Read more...] about Tonsils: Facts, Function & Treatment