Increases in chronic inflammation—not the passage of time—is the main reason why injured bones do not heal as well with age. This is the finding of a study in mice and humans published March 18 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). The results revolve around the known breakdown, due to wear and tear, of the protein machines and large molecules necessary for the life of human cells, the remnants of which trigger the immune system. First studied in its role in destroying invading microbes, this system also can react to the body's own proteins to cause inflammation, a response that fights infection at the site of injury and transitions into the healing process. The current study explains how this age-driven increase in immune signals diminishes the ability of stem cells—essential ingredients in bone repair—to multiply. This results in a smaller number of stem cells in the aged skeleton, say the study authors, and compromises their ability … [Read more...] about ‘Inflamm-aging’ Causes Loss of Bone Healing Ability in the Elderly
Targets Liver Cancer JENKINTOWN, Pa.–(BUSINESS WIRE)–March 19, 2019– SFA Therapeutics today announced approval of the second key U.S. patent derived from its research & development program, which utilizes microbiome-derived metabolite small molecules as drugs to modulate the body’s anti-inflammatory and immune systems (USPTO #10,231,941). As a result of this new patent, targeting Ffar2 (GPR43) and Ffar3 (GPR441) and down-regulation of NF-ĸB, the therapeutic applications of SFA’s first major drug, SFA001, will now expand from prevention of the progression of hepatitis B to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC- the most prevalent form of liver cancer) to direct treatment for patients afflicted with liver fibrosis, NASH, or liver cancer derived from HCC. Commenting on the significance of this achievement, Dr. Mark Feitelson, Ph.D., Professor of Biology and Chair of the … [Read more...] about SFA Therapeutics Wins Second Key U.S. Patent For Treatment of Chronic Liver Diseases
A Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) research team has identified interaction between two elements of the immune system as critical for the transformation of a protective immune response into chronic, cancer-promoting inflammation. In their report published in PNAS, the investigators demonstrate that elevated levels of the immune factor IL-33 and regulatory T cells (Tregs), which suppress the action of tumor-fighting immune cells, set the stage for the development of skin cancer associated with chronic dermatitis and colorectal cancer in patients with colitis. "Our research has revealed a critical immunological axis that initiates the development of cancer-promoting chronic inflammation," says Shawn Demehri, MD, PhD, of the MGH Center for Cancer Immunology and the Cutaneous Biology Research Center, senior author of the report. "This axis is chronic inflammation's 'Achilles heel,' and blocking it promises to prevent cancer development in chronic inflammation, which accounts for almost … [Read more...] about Interaction Between Immune Factors Triggers Cancer-Promoting Chronic Inflammation
While it is widely shown that possessing the ApoE4 gene is the major genetic risk factor of Alzheimer's disease (AD), not all ApoE4 carriers develop AD. For the first time, researchers at Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) have shown that ApoE4 linked with chronic inflammation dramatically increases the risk for AD. This can be detected by sequential measurements of C-reactive protein, a common clinical test which can be could be done routinely in a clinical setting. "Finding out what mediating factors for ApoE4 increase AD risk is important for developing intervention and prevention of the disease," explained corresponding author Wendy Qiu, MD, associate professor of psychiatry and pharmacology & experimental therapeutics at BUSM. "Since many elders have chronic low-grade inflammation after suffering from common diseases like cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, pneumonia and urinary tract infection, or after having surgeries, rigorously treating chronic systemic … [Read more...] about Link Found Between Chronic Inflammation, Risk for Alzheimer’s Disease
Inflammation is a vital part of the immune system's response to injury and infection. It is the body's way of signaling the immune system to heal and repair damaged tissue, as well as defend itself against foreign invaders, such as viruses and bacteria. Without inflammation as a physiological response, wounds would fester, and infections could become deadly. However, if the inflammatory process goes on for too long or if the inflammatory response occurs in places where it is not needed, it can become problematic. Chronic inflammation has been linked to certain diseases such as heart disease or stroke, and may also lead to autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. But a healthy diet and lifestyle can help keep inflammation under control. Acute inflammation Acute inflammation occurs after a cut on the knee, a sprained ankle or a sore throat. It's a short-term response with localized effects, meaning it works at the precise place where a … [Read more...] about What Is Inflammation?